Report: Urban River Parkways a Cure for Many Ills

The horizontal white lines are LADOT's new bike rumble strips, designed to slow cyclists down so they can share the path with pedestrians. Joe Linton/Streetsblog LA
A new report concludes that urban river parkways, like this Los Angeles River bike path, offer significant health benefits. Joe Linton/Streetsblog LA

A new report from UCLA’s Center for Occupational and Environmental Health sets out to make the connection between bikeways and walking paths along urban rivers and the health costs of physical inactivity in our cities.

The report, Urban River Parkways: An Essential Tool for Public Health [PDF], concludes that building walking and bike paths, parcourses, and other recreational facilities along urban rivers can provide major public health benefits and cost savings to individuals and to society by giving people opportunities to be physically active in relatively enjoyable, stress-free environs.

“I don’t think anyone’s looked at urban river parkways as a health issue,” said the report’s author, Dr. Richard Jackson, UCLA professor and former head of Environmental Health at the Centers for Disease Control. “I have noticed the great frustration of my physician friends, sitting at the end of the disease pipeline. Too many of their patients were suffering complications from obesity, from diabetes—from diseases related to inactivity.”

“We have failed to get people physically active by telling them to join a gym and get on a rowing machine,” he said. “But when we build places that are irresistible, people are active.”

The report compares the costs of building recreational facilities with medical costs resulting from inactivity, and concludes that spending money on facilities more than pays for itself in healthcare cost savings. It concludes that “urban river parkways can be viable, cost-effective health interventions that help direct efforts towards prevention rather than treatment, and increased public utilization increases the benefits with only small increases in the cost of maintenance.”

The report surveys a wide range of studies in public health fields that have quantified the dangers of inactivity—obesity, risk of diabetes and stroke, depression, and anxiety—as well as the benefits of increasing activity—decreased risk of disease, increased life span, better moods, mental health, and physical strength, less stress, and fewer work and school days missed.

Potential environmental benefits of developing recreation along urban rivers, such as better water filtration from permeable surfaces, cleaner air from increased vegetation, and a lessening of the urban heat island effect, are also pointed out.

“We have never looked at this kind of investment as a health investment,” said Jackson. “We need to figure out ways that we can get credit for the benefits of creating physical activity.”

These benefits could come from any kind of facility that gets people moving, not just urban river parkways, but the authors focused on those for a few reasons. Land around rivers is usually relatively level, and in cities it’s also usually a publicly owned right of way. They are also potentially long enough to provide real exercise, and to provide opportunities to commute along them rather than drive to work. “Many people would rather bike along the American River Parkway in Sacramento than be stuck in traffic along Highway 80,” he said.

Some of the data mined by the report include these gems:

  • By one estimate, for every $1 spent on trails, $2.94 is saved in direct medical benefit.
  • One study found that the annual cost per user of building and maintaining urban river trails is between $83 and $592, while the annual public health cost per capita of physical inactivity is $622.
  • Obesity accounts for 21 percent of overall healthcare costs in the U.S.
  • The creation of one miles of trail is, at the most expensive, less than health costs relating to obesity and diabetes.
  • Exercise with views of nature led to more consistent mental health improvements than exercise with no or an unpleasant view.

The report concludes that “urban river parkways can be viable, cost-effective health interventions that help direct efforts towards prevention rather than treatment, and increased public utilization increases the benefits with only small increases in the cost of maintenance.”

  • Jake Bloo

    So, money is saved… lives are improved……… but who is making money? PEOPLE MUST MAKE MONEY!!!!! >:{

  • Phantom Commuter

    Wealthy neighborhoods will get the bike paths

  • Dennis_Hindman

    The 4-mile Orange Line extension mixed use path–which opened mid 2012–along Canoga Ave is serving lower income residents for a large section of it.

    There will also be a 2.8-mile mixed use path along San Fernando Rd that will open about October of this year which will mainly go through lower income neighborhoods.

  • Kenny Easwaran

    If you’re an HMO that collects a set monthly fee from patients for their coverage plan, and then has expenses that vary with the health of your customers (but which don’t bring in any new revenue), then you can definitely profit by spending money on things that improve the health of your patients.

    The problem is that most medical providers are set up with financial incentives to increase the number of procedures their patients undergo, rather than decrease them. Insurers might have better incentives, but often don’t have enough market share in any one neighborhood to be able to internalize the financial benefits of the intervention.

  • Jake Bloo

    Exactly — while the said the above to be annoying– there is a truth that there are only cost savings to be made. The idea that less is more fails to grasp American culture in a viarety of ways (eg. Needing green products instead of just being green, or needing fat losing foods instead of just eating less)

    This extends to why bike lanes may not be super popular. They are seen as taking something away, instead of additive.

  • User_1

    ““Many people would rather bike along the American River Parkway in
    Sacramento than be stuck in traffic along Highway 80,” he said.”

    I’m currently staying about .5 miles from this trailway that Sac is so fortunate to have. I was just on it yesterday and stopped to admire the water. Noticed for the first time ever a swimming beaver? Looked like it could be, just don’t know my wildlife that well and never ever seen one on the river. Anyways this trailway is used by quite a large amount of the population. Sac had the forethought of building it years and years ago (not sure on the year established but know it over 40 years). I even use it to get back from downtown late at night. Some times I happen to spot dears around!

    Would be great to see this type of environment happen on the LA river. Would be a looooooooooooooooooooooooong time before seeing anything like dears and beaver, but could happen! I do see coyotes (healthy ones too) sometimes.

  • Joe Linton

    We already see coyotes on the L.A. River, too! No beavers that I am aware of – yet.

  • Joe Linton

    Not necessarily – some do – but there are bike paths in lower-income neighborhoods on Compton Creek, Arroyo Seco, Rio Hondo, and many sections of the L.A. River (especially the South County Bike Trail – from Vernon to South Gate.)

  • User_1

    I was actually referring above to coyotes seen in the LA River area.

    Other wildlife that is also fairly abundant on the American River at the trailway noted is wild turkeys. They look rather awesome too!

  • Petra

    I would never argue against physical exercise for one’s health. Totally for it. I’m just wondering if it just me that cannot stand the smell of the Hyperion treatment water and the bugs in and near the LA River?

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