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Posts from the Bicycling Category


How a More Inclusive Bike Week Can Help Move Us toward “Bike Life”

Stalin, Hugo, and an apprentice at the Watts Cyclery keep Watts moving for as little money as possible. Sahra Sulaiman/Streetsblog L.A.

Stalin, Hugo, an apprentice, and the Watts Cyclery kitty keep Watts moving for as little money as possible. Sahra Sulaiman/Streetsblog L.A.

“I can honestly say my faith in humanity has been restored today,” Joey said Wednesday as we popped his back tire back on his bike and I packed up my patch kit. “If I ever see you in the street again, I promise I’ll pay you back somehow.”

His declaration was quite sincere. He was worried that his boss was going to be upset at how late he was. He was still 20+ minutes away from the tire shop on Western where he worked, on foot, and he didn’t have fare for the bus or train on him. He was kind of bummed because the bike was new, too. A car making a hard right without warning had tossed both him and his previous bike into the air. He managed to walk away from the incident OK. The bike, not so much. He couldn’t afford to see this one damaged.

“I don’t even know what I hit,” he had said when I first spotted him walking his bike along Exposition Blvd. “I had been watching for glass…”

Glass wasn’t the issue this time. When we flipped the bike over and took a look at the wheel, we found a twisted industrial staple that I ended up having to yank out with my teeth after the embedded section broke off inside the tire.

“Here,” I tossed him my patch kit. “Grab one of the smaller patches and the glue while I find the hole in the tube.”

“Cool,” he nodded. “I was just going to fix it at work [with a patch for car tires].”

The imperfect fix he had planned did not surprise me. Like the majority of the folks whose tires I’ve stopped to patch in South L.A. (something that happens, on average, every other week), he was riding out of necessity, and something as basic as a popped tire could impinge on both his budget for the month (it’s a $6 to $8 fix at local shops) and his ability to get from A to B in a timely way.

Joey was fortunate in that, aside from the cheap and slightly-loose-on-the-rim tires, his bike was rather solid. Too many of the lower-income commuters I’ve spoken with are not riding on such reliable steeds.

Such as the youth whose crank kept coming loose at inopportune times and causing him to fall over in the street, occasionally in front of cars. Or the youth on the road bike with broken brakes who was wearing holes into the bottom of his shoes after he resigned himself to braking Fred Flintstone-style. Or the numerous men and youth whose rims have been damaged by collisions with cars but who couldn’t afford new wheels. Or the school kid whose rim snakebit his tube beyond repair and who cried on the phone when his mom said that was the end of his days of biking to school. Or the young man whose valve detached from the tube when we tried to fix his flat and who got a loaner tube from a friend on the condition he try to scrape together the $3 to buy one from a nearby sidewalk bike vendor as soon as possible. Or Watts resident Marcus, who had been able to convince a dollar store owner to sell him a patch kit for the $.88 he had in his pocket but who then had no way to pump up the tire. He called me at 11 p.m. a week later, from near Ted Watkins park, stranded with another flat. Was I in the area? He was afraid he wouldn’t be able to traverse the last 15 blocks home safely that night.

The struggle very low-income commuters face in maintaining bikes that were never in great shape to begin with is so bad that the owner of the Watts Cyclery even found himself having to create layaway and monthly payment plans for people who desperately needed a bike or a fix, but couldn’t pay for it upfront.

Despite the many odds they face, low and very low-income commuters consistently comprise a significant proportion of the total commuter cycling pool. And many more would likely bike, provided they could either easily/cheaply access solid bikes or get their existing bikes up and running again.

Which is why it is so unfortunate that Metro’s approach to bike week isn’t more reflective of their experience. Read more…

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Coalition Calls For 10 Percent of Future L.A. Sales Tax To Go To Walk-Bike

Other California county transportation sales tax measures set aside funding for walking and bicycling - why not Los Angeles? Image via white paper [PDF]

Other California county transportation sales tax measures set aside funding for walking and bicycling – why not Los Angeles? Image via white paper [PDF]

There is a new twist in the path to a 2016 Los Angeles County transportation sales tax measure, tentatively being called “Measure R2.”

Investing in Place, a new policy-based organization that has examined transportation sales taxes throughout the state, just held its own conference with a coalition of more than thirty community based partner organizations. The purpose of the gathering was to push a policy that  “at least ten percent of the next Los Angeles County transportation sales tax measure be dedicated for walking, bicycling, and safe routes to school investments.”

In addition, the coalition is asking that twenty percent of the “local return” be set aside for active transportation. The sales tax “local return” goes to individual cities on a per capita basis to pay for transportation expenditures. Though a number of cities, notably the City of Los Angeles, have used some local return monies for walk and bike projects and programs, most cities throughout L.A. County have not.

Readers may be familiar with the proposed Measure R2, but if not, see these recent SBLA articles about what it tentatively looks like and what decisions are being made now. Though a very small amount of 2008’s successful transportation sales tax Measure R funding has gone to bike and pedestrian projects, there was no dedicated active transportation funding in either Measure R in 2008 nor the defeated transportation sales tax Measure J in 2012.

The coalition (a listing of groups is shown after the jump) was shepherded under the auspices of the Los Angeles County Active Transportation Collaborative, the L.A. County Bicycle Coalition, Safe Routes to School National Partnership, and Investing in Place.

They researched other transportation ballot measures in California, finding many examples of successful set-asides for active transportation, prominently last year’s Measure BB in Alameda County, with twelve percent of overall funding dedicated to walking and bicycling. Read the coalition research in this January 2015 white paper: Best Practices for Funding Active Transportation with County Transportation Sales Taxes [PDF].

More about the coalition and its demands here.

While we won’t know the final ballot language for a 2016 measure until next year, Metro was promising tht it would have a draft proposal this summer. However, Investing in Place is also reporting that the Measure R2 schedule is being delayed about two months: the final expenditure plan was due in July, now it looks like September.  Read more…

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Bike To Work Day Is Tomorrow – Fun OCTA Videos

Tomorrow, Thursday, is Bike to Work Day, part of Bike Week L.A.

L.A. Cyclists ride free tomorrow on all Metro buses and trains. Other municipal buses, LADOT Commuter Express, Big Blue Bus, Foothill Transit, etc., are also offering free rides to cyclists. Bring your bike for free rides on Metrolink trains all week. There are dozens of local Bike to Work Day pit stops from West Hollywood to Santa Monica to South L.A. to Glendora to Highland Park and a half gazillion places in between. Your SBLA editor is looking forward to biking to UCLA’s Complete Streets Conference at the California Endowment, which is hosting its own Bike to Work Day pit stop. After work, there is a bikey art show reception downtown, and plenty of handlebar happy hours.

If you’re looking for a little motivation, enjoy these Orange County Transportation Authority bike to work videos. They making biking to work appear just about as fun, healthy, easy, and sexy as it actually is. Read more…


Bike Week: Blessing Bikes, Talking Bikes, Bike Videos

There are lots of #BikeWeekLA events going on this week — way too many for our meager cadre of Streetsblog Los Angeles writers to attend. We did make it to a few events so far: the kick-off press conference, a panel, and a blessing.

Good Samaritan’s 2015 Blessing of the Bicycles

Good Samaritan Hospital's 12th Annual Blessing of the Bikes. Photo by Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

Good Samaritan Hospital’s 12th Annual Blessing of the Bikes. Photos by Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

This morning Good Samaritan Hospital hosted its 12th annual Blessing of the Bikes. Even though the format changes very little from year to year, I still very much enjoy attending. Each year, there is a free delicious breakfast, bike schwag, recognition of fallen cyclists and cycling leaders, a gathering of religious officials praying for cyclist safety, and a ceremonial ride circling the hospital. Each year, I am moved by the religious leaders’ adaptation of ancient religious teachings to apply them to contemporary cycling. In the past, a priest recited the biblical passage about “a wheel within a wheel.”

This year I really enjoyed hearing Jihad Turk, Imam at the Islamic Center of Southern California and President of Bayan Claremont Islamic (Seminary) Graduate School, recite a traditional prayer the prophet Muhammad taught his followers in the 7th century, about 1,400 years ago:

سبحان الذي سخر لنا هذا وما كنا له مقرنين، وإنا إلي ربنا لمنقلبون‏.‏

Which he translated Read more…


A Tale of Two Future Bridges: New Bike/Ped Crossing on L.A. River, Fewer Sidewalks on Glendale-Hyperion

A person crossing would have to come down from the bridge on the right to the red car bridge on the left to cross the bridge. Would anyone do this and add 12 minutes to their trip in the real world?

Under the two plans announced today, a person crossing would have to come down from the bridge on the right to the red car bridge on the left to cross. Would anyone do this and add 12 minutes to their trip in the real world?

It was sort of a surreal moment. Even as Los Angeles City Councilmember Mitch O’Farrell stood at the podium discussing the benefits of a planned new bicycle and pedestrian crossing over the L.A. River, the Bureau of Public Works released its recommendation (PDF) that the new Glendale-Hyperion Bridge would actually have fewer feet devoted to safe sidewalks than the current bridge.

LaBonge and O’Farrell at this morning’s press event. Both pics by Damien Newton

What was supposed to be a light press conference announcing the opening of a permanent bridge project using existing support structures from an old Red Car bridge across the L.A. River turned somewhat sour for many of the community and traffic safety advocates in attendance when the Bureau announced their plans for the bridge on their website. News traveled quickly among the crowd, and the reporters present suddenly found themselves with dozens of sources for a meatier story than a made-for-bike-week announcement of new infrastructure.

In the fall of 2013, news broke that when the Glendale-Hyperion complex of bridges that connect Atwater Village and Silver Lake would be retrofitted to make them earthquake-proof, local advocates immediately noticed problems with the new design on the street portion of the bridge. Despite appearing on the city’s bicycle plan, the road redesign called for widening the existing car lanes, installing “crash barriers” in the middle of the bridge, removing a sidewalk, and adding no bike lanes.

After an explosion of public comment and a community forum which turned into a Livable Streets rally, O’Farrell, announced a citizen’s advisory committee would be formed. The Mayor’s office submitted a request for an extension to the grant. The old timeline would have precluded any major changes to the proposed road design.

Earlier today, the Bureau of Engineering released its analysis of four different designs for the new bridge, concluding that to make space for a pair of bike lanes on the new bridge, the best option was to take out one of the two sidewalks.

At the podium this morning, O’Farrell painted as rosy a picture as possible, discussing the importance of river crossings for all mode users and some of the improvements the new Hyperion Bridge will have over the existing one, including marked crosswalks and bicycle lanes. He even struck a populist tone, declaring his support for “protected bicycle lanes” on Hyperion and across the city.

But that wasn’t enough for many of the safety advocates in the audience. A press release from L.A. Walks noted that any bicyclist or pedestrian on Glendale Boulevard wanting to cross the river on the “Red Car Bridge” would need to travel twelve minutes out of their way–and are thus far more likely to use the limited sidewalk or just walk on the shoulder even without a sidewalk.

“The City of Los Angeles promotes the fact that we have moved past our auto-centric history and want to be ‘A Safe City,’ as it states in the Mayor’s Great Streets for Los Angeles Strategic Plan,” says Deborah Murphy. “We cannot achieve this goal if we can’t provide the most basic of provisions for pedestrians–a simple sidewalk on both sides of the bridge.” Read more…


This Morning’s Bike Week L.A. Press Conference Made One Cynic Smile

New Metro CEO Phil Washington addresses this morning's Bike Week L.A. press conference. Photo: Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

New Metro CEO Phil Washington addresses this morning’s Bike Week L.A. press conference. Photo: Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

I get pretty cynical, critical, and dismissive about bike week. OK, some folks, probably rightly, know I get too cynical and bitter about a lot of things, and bike week is one of those.

This morning, I finished up SBLA’s bike week calendar post, which is pretty critical of the promotion for tonight’s event, “Is Bicycling In Your Future?” The event’s title assumes that nobody bikes in Los Angeles now or in the past. The promotional blurb, for example– “Can bike infrastructure make the streets safe enough for you to ride on?”– is addressed to people who are assumed to never bike. To me it says: if you’re waiting for L.A. bike infrastructure to be complete before you bike, you will never bike.

Even Metro’s bike week promotional slogan (see graphic) assumes bicyclists are not traffic, and portrays cycling as a cloud of exhaust, albeit a blue cloud. Other Metro bike week messaging states “Give your car a break” and this is for an agency whose bus and train riders are more than three-quarters car-free. Why assume that the reader has a car? I guess it is better than AAA’s inadvertent bike blood-splatter messaging.

I guess I should have some empathy. Bike week gets a few agency staff outside their comfort zone. There are a bunch of people who spend all day writing serious stuff about how freeway widening projects will “decrease surface street traffic.” Yes, Metro and Caltrans are still saying this, as of March 2015. Once a year, these professionals are told to toss cyclists a crumb. They are stuck behind their windshield, terrified of bicycling. Is it any surprise that the results come off as wooden and tone deaf? They are not used to taking bicycling seriously. Their leadership has not made taking bicycling seriously an ongoing priority for their job. What should I expect?

So, there was a press conference at Grand Park this morning where Metro, the L.A. City Transportation Department (LADOT), Caltrans, Metrolink, Good Samaritan Hospital, CicLAvia, L.A. County Bicycle Coalition, and C.I.C.L.E. all got together to announce and promote bike week.

And it was actually good.

Numerous speakers got things right, and sounded very appropriate, positive, and hopeful notes:

  • Hosting the press conference, Metro boardmember Jacquelyn Dupont-Walker barely touched on bike week, instead outlining ongoing Metro efforts to support everyday bicycling, repeatedly saying that it is not about “bike week” but “bike life.” Dupont-Walker outlined recent and upcoming Metro initiatives: three-bike bus racks, a new secure bike parking hub prototype under construction in El Monte, the selection of a Metro regional bike-share vendor expected next month, and a newly funded $224,000 initiative for a series of bicycle safety education classes.
  • Metro boardmember and L.A. City Councilmember Paul Krekorian spoke enthusiastically about the success of CicLAvia in the San Fernando Valley, and the way the event highlighted synergies between cycling and transit. As a Metrolink boardmember, Krekorian announced that all this week, Metrolink is offering free rides for cyclists. Just show your bike as your ticket.
  • Metro boardmember and L.A. County Supervisor Hilda Solis spoke about participating in the recent East Los Angeles CicLAvia, how bicycling and walking are the way people from all over the world get around all the time, and how it is time for L.A. County to “put funding behind [active transportation].”
  • L.A. City Councilmember Jose Huizar opined that the impact of CicLAvia has been greater than any policy or legislation approved in recent years. He stressed that, through CicLAvia and everyday bike transportation, Los Angeles is seeing that bicycling is great for health, the environment, and business.
  • New Metro CEO Phil Washington spent his first couple of hours on the job at the bike week kick-off. He stated that he checked in at his office, put his briefcase down, found the bathroom, and took the train to get to Grand Park for this morning’s event. Washington stressed that walking and bicycling are key components for creating a balanced transportation system that serves everyone from 8 to 80 years old.
  • LADOT General Manager Seleta Reynolds touted the agency’s 30 new miles of bike lane this fiscal year, its first parking-protected bike lanes, and new bike corrals. She stressed that “it’s not really about the bike” but that bicycling is one important component of a safe, strong, prosperous, resilient city.
  • Nonprofit representatives Good Samaritan Hospital’s Andy Leeka, CicLAvia’s Aaron Paley, LACBC’s Tamika Butler, and C.I.C.L.E.’s Vanessa Gray extended and deepened the bicycle appreciation and enthusiasm. LACBC released a new fact sheet compiling survey data from their Operation Firefly bike-light giveaways.
  • The only consistent wrong note was sounded by Caltrans’ District 7 Director Carrie Bowen. Bowen sounds very knowledgeable when interacting with the Metro board regarding Measure R freeway-widening projects, but at this morning’s event, she read monotonously from a prepared statement, even asserting that Caltrans has always included bicycling in its projects. Just. Not. True. Caltrans has come a long way toward realigning the agency’s past car-centric approach to better support a healthy 21st century mix of transportation modes, but, frankly, this change is still just beginning to take hold, sometimes grudgingly. Bowen closed by exhorting cyclists, “If you are driving, slow down for the cone zone.” Really.

Read more…

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Cyclists Wanted for Pedal L.A. Installation for L.A. State Historic Park

David xxx demonstrates xxxxx photos by Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

David Gauch demonstrates Pedal L.A. – all photos by Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

I recently got a preview of Pedal L.A. – a fascinating new bicycle-themed interactive art installation for the Los Angeles State Historic Park. What I saw was the work-in-progress prototype. The installation’s creator, David Gauch, is looking to Southern California’s diverse cycling community to get involved in using his project to tell our stories.

If you are interested in volunteering your L.A. cycling experiences, go to the Pedal L.A. website and fill out the participation form. All kinds of cyclists from all walks of life are needed to capture the experience of riding a bicycle in all corners of the city and with as much diversity as possible. Gauch will be interviewing all volunteer participants, and will provide equipment to document a route that you bicycle from time to time.

Visitor orientation center building under construction at L.A. State Historic Park

Welcome center building under construction at L.A. State Historic Park

Los Angeles State Historic Park (LASHP), formerly known as the Cornfields Yard, is the under-construction state park that connects downtown L.A.’s Chinatown with the L.A. River. The site-specific art installation is tailored to fit at LASHP’s under-construction Welcome Center, which orients visitors to the park and the Los Angeles histories that the park interprets.

xxxx David Gauch

Pedal L.A. creator digital media artist David Gauch

Gauch is an undergraduate studying Interpretive Digital Media at UCLA’s Film School. His focus in Interactive Art. As he describes the project: “I am excited to create a participatory platform from which people from all over the city and country will visit the Los Angeles Historic State Park and will have the opportunity to engage with this interactive project whose content is created by Angelenos that bicycle. It is my hope that this project raises continued awareness and discussion about alternative transportation options in our city, continuing the momentum that has been building thanks to so many in our community.”

Gauch continues, “As a Filmmaker this project has pushed me beyond the traditional tools used in traditional media forms. It’s exciting to be working in the future of media. Media in the traditional form has been a passive experience (we sit in a theater, we sit on our couch, we read a book). Pedal L.A. is using current motion sensing technology to create an interactive experience. Meaning visitors to the park will participate in creating a communal experience by physically moving their bodies around the interior of the Welcome Center.”

Interactive media installations are a bit difficult to describe. Or even to photograph.

The video below gives some sense of what to expect. Read more…


Investing in Place – Streetsblog Interviews Jessica Meaney

Jessica Meaney, image via Investing in Place

Jessica Meaney, photo via Investing in Place

Jessica Meaney probably needs no introduction for many Streetsblog L.A. readers. She was awarded a 2013 Streetsie for her advocacy work. She’s a former boardmember of SBLA’s parent non-profit, an occasional SBLA author, and a steadfast voice for people who walk and bike in Southern California. She backs up her statements with a near-encyclopedic knowledge of convincing statistics that quantify exactly how many people walk, and just how little our municipalities invest in their facilities. Until recently she worked for the Safe Routes to School National Partnership, where she was one of the leaders behind the L.A. County Active Transportation Collaborative. She recently started an exciting new endeavor, called Investing in Place, which she explains below. 

Tell SBLA readers about your new endeavor Investing In Place – what is it?

It’s a new new non-profit effort to support a constituency for equitable planning and support and relationships with agencies and efforts that invest in the built environment in Los Angeles County.

As Investing in Place maps out its 2015 work plan, the focus will largely be on transportation finance and policy work at the County level [through] Metro. Over the past several years working with Metro, again and again decisions have come back to, “Is it in the long range transportation plan?” Updating the LRTP (last one done in 2009) is an amazing opportunity to help shape the update of the region’s transportation priorities and processes for funding programs and projects. With close to 70% of Los Angeles County’s transportation funds being generated through our local county sales taxes working with Metro is critical for many outcomes people are hungry to see in our built environment.

And I also hope to support a Transportation Finance Strategic Plan at the city of Los Angeles. [The city] represents 40% of of the County, and without a comprehensive and easy-to-access transportation finance plan for L.A. City, it’s been hard to understand priorities and opportunities. It’s crazy to me that…we can say the sidewalks in the city of Los Angeles have, at minimum, a $1 billion price tag to address [issues] but no intentional policies, plans, staffing, or finance goals in place to do this. If the city of Los Angeles was able to articulate transportation funding needs and goals, this would enhance the regional decision making processes – especially regarding sales taxes.

And one great opportunity I welcome help [in] getting the word out on is Investing in Place is partnering with LA n Sync (a project of the Annenberg Foundation) and the Los Angeles County Bicycle Coalition (LACBC) to provide grant writing assistance to jurisdictions applying for the Active Transportation Program cycle 2 this spring. If people are interested in being considered for this opportunity, they need to apply by March 18th. We’ve posted the details and online application for this here.

How can interested folks get involved in Investing In Place?

Reach out to me at or sign up for our email list, read our blog, or find us on social media (Twitter and Facebook). It’s looking like the April Metro Board meetings will be important opportunities to review the agency’s draft idea for what would be in the potential 2016 Ballot measure. As of now, there is no expenditure plan for this tax from Metro.

Investing in Place has an open partner meeting this week on March 5th (filled to capacity!), and then we’re working on more meetings in May, June, and September to help provide information on how to engage in these opportunities.

One of the key ways Investing in Place is working to get at a regional reach is by our Advisor team. The advisory team is [comprised of] over 10 members from leaders from organizations all over Los Angeles County, and some doing State and National work. They provide Investing in Place [with] strategic advice on organizational growth, strategy, and collaboration. It’s my version of the dream team. I’d encourage people to reach out to me or any members of our Advisor teamRead more…


L.A. vs. S.F.: How Does Transportation Really Compare?

Recent San Francisco survey results show less than half of trips are made by private car. Image via SBSF.

Recent San Francisco survey results shows that driving has made up a minority of trips for at least three years. Image via SBSF.

Last week, the Los Angeles Times published an article titled, “San Francisco residents relying less on private automobiles.” It is summarized at today’s Metro transportation headlines. The Times highlighted recent good news, reported in early February at Streetsblog SF, that 52 percent of San Francisco trips are taken by means other than a private car: walk, bike, transit, taxi, etc. The data are from a San Francisco Municipal Transportation Agency (SFMTA) survey examining all trips, not just commuting. The time frame is from 2012 through 2014.

First, let’s celebrate! This is great news. In California’s second-largest city one of California’s largest cities, sustainable healthy transportation holds a majority.

The Times briefly mentions similarities between S.F. and L.A. in terms of transit investment, but mostly frames the good news by drawing sharp distinctions between L.A. and S.F. The Times article states:

  • “In stark contrast to car-dependent Los Angeles, studies show that most trips in the burgeoning tech metropolis [S.F.] are now made by modes of transportation other than the private automobile.”
  • “At 47 square miles, San Francisco is relatively small and densely populated. There are more than 17,000 residents per square mile — twice that of Los Angeles [City].”
  • “Los Angeles has an entrenched car culture and the city alone is spread out over nearly 10 times the area of San Francisco. Its population density of 8,100 people per square mile is less than half that of the Bay Area city.”
  • “Countywide, the [L.A. County] land area is an enormous 4,752 square miles, and the density drops to about 2,100 people per square mile.”

Just how stark is this contrast between Los Angeles and San Francisco?

The way I see it, the Times isn’t really comparing apples to apples. Read more…


Alex Baum 1922-2015 – Los Angeles City’s Stalwart Bicycling Advocate

Alex Baum at the August 2009 Los Angeles City Bicycle Advisory Committee meeting. Sketch by Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

Alex Baum at the August 2009 L.A. City Bicycle Advisory Committee meeting. Sketch by Joe Linton/Streetsblog L.A.

Los Angeles’ bicycling community has lost one its hardest-working and longest-serving advocates, Alex Baum. Alex Baum (1922-2015) was a survivor of the Nazi holocaust, a successful businessman, and a persistent champion for bicycling in Los Angeles. For decades, Baum chaired the city’s Bicycle Advisory Committee, and was a tireless presence in corridors of Los Angeles City Hall, urging lawmakers to make Los Angeles a great place for bicycling.

Alexandre Baum was born on December 30, 1922, in a small town near Lorraine in the disputed border region at times claimed by both France and Germany. His parents were Moritz Baum (1892-1925) and Lucienne “Laure” Lippman (1900-1986).

Though technically born in Germany, Baum identified with his French Jewish ancestry. He grew up in Vic-Sur-Seille, France.

During World War II, Alex Baum was very active in the French resistance to German occupation. He and his younger brother Marcel Baum (1924-2014) smuggled refugees across occupied France, crossing the country from Germany to Spain three times. On their fourth attempt, they were caught by Germans and imprisoned in Nazi concentration camps.

Alex and Marcel Baum spent two and a half years in the Buchenwald, Peenemunde, and Mittlebau-Dora camps in Germany. There they assembled, and in the process covertly sabotaged, German V-2 rockets. The Baum brothers had passports under the alias last name “Baumont,” so they were imprisoned as political prisoners, with their Jewish identities never revealed to their captors.  Read more…